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Chapter 73. Iron and Steel

American Iron and Steel Institute. Iron making. The overall flow line of iron and steel making is shown in figure 73.4. Figure 73.4 Flow line of steel making. For iron making, the essential feature is the blast furnace, where iron ore is melted (reduced) to produce pig iron.

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Direct Reduced Iron and its Production Processes – IspatGuru

DR process, DRI, HBI, Iron making. Metallization, reformed natural gas, residual elements, Rotary kiln, Direct Reduced Iron and its Production Processes. Direct reduced iron (DRI) is the product which is produced by the direct reduction of iron ore or other iron bearing materials in the solid state by using non-coking coal or natural gas.

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CHAPTER-11 FUNDAMENTALS OF IRON ORE SINTERING

FUNDAMENTALS OF IRON ORE SINTERING R. P. Bhagat INTRODUCTION The process of sinter making originated from a need to make use of fines generated in mines and in ore benefiCiation plants. With the development of sintering technology, a sintering plant has become a tremendous success for providing a phenomenal increase in

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(PDF) iron-steel making From start to finish

Presentation will help to provide basic principle and brief overview of iron making to steel making process. which is cover each and every stage of iron and steel making process along with ...

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"Iron Triangle"

The "Iron Triangle" is a model of the policy-making process which emphasizes the mutually beneficial roles played by Interest Groups, Congressional Committees, and Bureaucratic Agencies in formulating and implementing federal policies and programs. Each of the players in the triangle influences, and is influenced by, each of the other ...

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SPONGE IRON – Lloyd's Metals

Sponge iron making is a process in which iron ore lumps (typically 5mm-18mm size) are tumbled with a 'select' grade of iron-coking coal little dolomite inside an inclined rotary kiln and control combusted in the presence of air for about 12 hours before the products are air cooled, magnetically separated, screened and size wise in finished ...

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Steelmaking Process - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

During the steelmaking process, fluxes that consist of lime (CaO) or dolomitic lime, with iron and scraps, are charged to the furnace.There is a certain amount of free lime (f-CaO) in steel slag. Free lime, with a specific gravity of 3.34, can react with water to produce Ca(OH) 2, with a specific gravity of 2.23, which results in volume increase (Fig. 9.1).

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(PPT) Ppt on steel making | Sapan Kansara - Academia.edu

Ppt on steel making . ... KALDO PROCESS In this process high phosphorous iron containing about 1.8% P may be refined with thermal efficiency. In blowing position, the furnace is inclined at an angle of 15 degree. The oxygen is blown into the furnace above the bath surface to refine high phosphorous iron (1.8%) to steel with low S, P and N ...

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Ironmaking 101 – From Ore to Iron with Blast Furnaces ...

Ironmaking Blast Furnace. Iron is made by reacting iron ore (iron oxide and impurities), coke (a reductant) and limestone (CaCO 3) in a blast furnace.. Iron ores with lower iron content such as taconite are first processed to concentrate the iron level and drive off volatile impurities.

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FINEX (steelmaking process) - Wikipedia

FINEX is the name for an iron making technology developed by former Siemens VAI (now Primetals Technologies) and POSCO.Molten iron is produced directly using iron ore fines and non-coking coal rather than traditional blast furnace methods through sintering and reduction with coke.Elimination of preliminary processing is claimed to make the plant for FINEX less expensive to build than a blast ...

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INTRODUCTION TO SHEET METAL FORMING PROCESSES

Process Dev. 42 months Pd t Product Design Soft/Hard tool built Soft/Hard tool tryout STYLE DESIGN Product Devpt. Today, people look at it rather as a sort of funnel, where key decisions are taken on the basis of different factors and alternative choices. style design proces product-process validation tooling CAM tryout production 18 months

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iron processing | Britannica

iron processing, use of a smelting process to turn the ore into a form from which products can be fashioned.Included in this article also is a discussion of the mining of iron and of its preparation for smelting. Iron (Fe) is a relatively dense metal with a silvery white appearance and distinctive magnetic properties. It constitutes 5 percent by weight of the Earth's crust, and it is the ...

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1A Manufacturing Process for Iron and Steel

The smelting and refining process for iron and steel in the BF-BOF process involves the carbon reduction of iron ore (Fe 2 O 3) in the BF to make molten iron, and decarburization of molten iron in the BOF to make molten steel. Major reducing agent in the BF is the carbon monoxide gas(CO) generated by the oxidation of the carbon(C) in coke. ...

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Period #5 Notes: Making Steel and Its Chemical Composition

2. Two-stage refinement of iron: A two-staged process is typically used to make steel from iron-ore. First pig-iron is created from iron ore, and then steel is made from further refinement of pig-iron. a. Making Pig-Iron: The common industrial method to smelt …

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Pig Iron Manufacturing Process - 911metallurgist.com

Making Pig Iron by Electric Furnace . Five groups of experiments were made on the electric-furnace production of pig steel, arranged as below: Group I. A series in which both limestone and coke were varied in the charge. Group II. A series in which the amount of coke in the charge was varied, other components remaining constant. Group III.

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Iron making - SlideShare

Iron making. Recrystallization is a process by which deformed grains are replaced by a new set of undeformed grains that nucleate and grow until the original grains have been entirely consumed. Recrystallization is usually accompanied by a …

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Presentation steel making - SlideShare

Presentation steel making 1. Modern steelmaking abhay deo 12met012 Metallurgy,giet Gunupur 2. Content Introduction Types of steel Classification of carbon steel Process of steelmaking • Basic oxygen furnace • DRI based steel making • Bessemer process • Open hearth furnace production of steel Modern steelmaking process

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Metal casting processes - IIT Guwahati

The six basic steps in making sand castings are, (i) Pattern making, (ii) Core making, (iii) Moulding, (iv) Melting and pouring, (v) Cleaning Pattern making - Pattern: Replica of the part to be cast and is used to prepare the mould cavity. It is the physical model of the casting used …

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IRON AND STEEL - Records Collections

The iron and steel industry, including primary and secondary producer s, is composed of 79 companie s that produce raw steel at 116 locations. Iron is generally produced from iron ore (t aconite) in a primary mineral production process, while steel is produced using both primary and secondary processes. Primary production refers

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Production of iron and steel - SlideShare

21. 4/27/2015 22 Introduction - Production of Iron & Steel Steel is essential to everyday life cars, trains, buildings, ships, bridges, refrigerators, medical equipment, for example, are all made with steel. Raw Materials - A blast furnace Uses iron ore, coke (made from specialist coking coals) and small quantities of limestone (iron ore, coke ...

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CHAPTER 11: METAL ALLOYS APPLICATIONS AND PROCESSING

Ductile iron: small addition (0.05 wt..%) of Mg to gray iron changes the flake C microstructure to spheroidal that increases (by factor ~20) steel ductility 4. Malleable iron: traditional form of cast iron with reasonable ductility. First cast to white iron and then heat-treated to …

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Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) Production Plant

Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) Production Plant NIPPON STEEL ENGINEERING CO., LTD. Basic Concept or Summary S-16 u A direct reduced iron (DRI) production plant is a shaft reduction furnace to produce DRI with large metal iron content by directly reducing iron ore (or iron ore pellets) with reducing gases.

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electric arc furnace iron making process ppt -

116364638 Iron and Steel Manufacturing Process Ppt Electric arc furnace (EAF) Steel scrap is melted using heat generated with the aid of an electric arc produced by graphite electrodes.the output is crude steel which is used in either ingots or fed in the continuous casting process cycle.

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The Manufacture of Steel

Zealand are both unusual, making the overall process almost unique. New Zealand is also one of the few countries that has increased steel production over the last decade. Its current share of the domestic steel market is about 90%. THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS Iron ore is converted to steel via two main steps. The first involves the production of ...

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12.5 Iron And Steel Production

lance with high-pressure nitrogen. The process duration varies with the injection rate, hot metal chemistry, and desired final sulfur content, and is in the range of 5 to 30 minutes. 12.5.1.4 Steelmaking Process — Basic Oxygen Furnaces - In the basic oxygen process (BOP), molten iron from a blast furnace and iron scrap are refined

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Infographic: the Iron and Steel Manufacturing Process

An Infographic of the Iron and Steel Manufacturing Process. Steel production is a 24-hour-a-day, 365-day-a-year process, dependent on a consistent supply of raw materials and huge amounts of energy. According to the World Steel Association, world crude steel production has increased from 851 million tonnes (Mt) in 2001 to 1,606 Mt in 2013 and ...

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(PDF) Presentation on Iron to steel making

Presentation will help to provide basic principle and brief overview of iron making to steel making process. which is cover each and every stage of iron and steel making process along with ...

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How iron is made - material, manufacture, making, history ...

The European iron workers knew the Easterners had better iron, but not the processes involved in fashioning stronger iron products. Entire nations launched efforts to discover the process. The first known European breakthrough in the production of cast iron, which led quickly to the first practical steel, did not come until 1740.

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Iron and Steel Manufacturing Process | PDF | Steelmaking ...

Iron Making Process. producing iron from iron ore Methods in iron Making Process 1. Coke-oven-Sinter-BF route 2. Direct Reduction Technique 3. Smelting Reduction Technologies Coke-oven-Sinter-BF route used by integrated steel plants that produce steel from iron ore. In this process, the iron ore is first subjected to a sintering process.

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Steel Manufacturing Process

Interactive Steel Manufacturing Process AIST's Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel ® Wheel. AIST has collaborated with Purdue University Northwest's Center for Innovation Through Visualization and Simulation to create a unique, interactive experience of the steel manufacturing process. This one-of-a-kind experience allows you to click on each phase of steelmaking and provides a deeper ...

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MIDREX Processes

The process reduces iron ore using a reforming gas made from natural gas. The DRI is used mainly as the raw material for electric arc furnaces (EAFs), as a clean iron source substitute for scrap iron. Pores are left behind in the DRI after oxygen has been removed. These pores, if filled with water, for example, can cause the iron to reoxidize with

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Steel Pickling: A Profile

furnace during iron-making. Sintering is the process that agglomerates fine ore particles into a porous mass for input to the blast furnace. This process was developed to make use of the coke fines, iron ore fines, and recovered blast furnace flue dust.5 During ironmaking, molten iron is produced by reducing

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Steel manufacture - SteelConstruction.info

Modern iron making. Iron is manufactured in a blast furnace. First, iron ore is mixed with coke and heated to form an iron-rich clinker called 'sinter'. Sintering is an important part of the overall process as it reduces waste and provides an efficient raw material for iron making. Coke is produced from carefully selected grades of coal.

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The Steel Manufacturing Process - How is Steel Made?

This process, known as cast iron, produced a more durable product than wrought iron, but it was brittle, making it difficult to shape and bend. After cast iron, blacksmiths of Central Europe began coating wrought-iron products in charcoal to improve the iron's strength while maintaining its …

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Alternative Iron making processess - SlideShare

presentation on alternative iron making smelting processess, relevance to INDIA. First, iron ore fines are reduced (de-oxidized) step by step in fluidized reduction furnace, and become bigger particles by HCI roller. Coking coals are processed to …

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How Steel is Made Using the Basic Oxygen Steelmaking …

pure oxygen to convert liquid iron and scrap into steel (Basic Oxygen Steelmaking). BOS is the most common and dominant primary steelmaking process used in the world today. A primary steelmaking process refers to the actual process of taking the raw materials and converting them to …

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Iron making - SlideShare

The steel making process in the oxygen converter consists of: Charging steel scrap. Pouring liquid pig iron into the furnace. Charging fluxes. Oxygen blowing. Sampling and temperature measurement Tapping the steel to a ladle. De-slagging. …

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Extraction of Raw Materials (1) | Steel in barbells made ...

Extraction of Raw Materials (1) The key raw materials in steelmaking include iron ore, coal, limestone, and recycled steel (not extracted). Actual steel is mostly iron ore and less than 2% carbon, the other materials are used in the manufacturing of crude steel. Iron ore is mined in about 50 countries (worldsteel association, 2014).

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Pig Iron | International Iron Metallics Association

Pig iron is the product of smelting iron ore (also ilmenite) with a high-carbon fuel and reductant such as coke, usually with limestone as a flux. Charcoal and anthracite are also used as fuel and reductant. Pig iron is produced by smelting or iron ore in blast furnaces or by smelting ilmenite in electric furnaces .

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Iron and Steel Manufacturing

In the BOF process, coke making and iron making precede steel making; these steps are not necessary with an EAF. Pig iron is manufactured from sintered, pelletized, or lump iron ores us-ing coke and limestone in a blast furnace. It is then fed to a BOF in molten form along with scrap metal, fluxes, alloys, and high-purity oxygen to manufacture ...

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